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November 1999, Volume 6, Number 11

The Americas

INS: Border, Sanctions, Detention
Border. On October 8, 1999, the INS announced that it was expanding Operation Safeguard, a combination of more agents, lights and fences along

Labor Market: Enforcement, H-1Bs
Since September 1997, the US minimum wage has been $5.15 an hour. Congress is expected to approve legislation in Fall 1999 that would raise the

Congress, Candidates
A group of border-state senators introduced a bill in October 1999 that would increase federal reimbursement of the costs to state and local

States: California, Texas
California Demography. California Research Bureau demographers released projections showing that the percentage of non-Hispanic whites would

Immigrant Integration
Chinese. Between 1991 and 1998, 350,000 mainland Chinese immigrated to the United States. The Los Angeles Times speculated on October 16, 1999

Canada: Chinese
Some 590 Chinese arrived in four ships in Canada between July and September 1999-491 applied for asylum. By October 1999, the Immigration and Refugee

Mexico: NAFTA
Some former Braceros have charged that, between 1942 and 1947, 10 percent of their US wages were deducted and forwarded to Mexico's Banco Nacional de

Latin America
Colombia. There are about 1.5 million Colombians in the US, including some 800,000 in the New York City borough of Queens. Since summer 1999,


Japan: Brazilians
There are about 1.3 million ethnic Japanese in Brazil and 220,000 of them have moved to Japan since 1990, when Japan allowed people of Japanese

China/Hong Kong
China's economy is expected to grow by eight percent in 1999; Hong Kong's is expected to shrink by one percent in 1999. There have been many recent

South Korea
Since the Korean War (1950-53), when children of American men and Korean women were shunned, South Korea has become one of the largest baby-exporting

Malaysia: Foreign Workers
Malaysia has one of the world's highest percentages of foreign workers: one to two million of the eight million workers in Malaysia are foreigners.


EU: Tampere Summit
The Schengen effort to harmonize immigration policies moved ahead during the October 15-16, 1999 meeting in Tampere, Finland of EU leaders. They

Austria, Switzerland
Austria's Freedom Party finished second in October 3, 1999 balloting, 415 votes ahead of the third-place Austrian People's Party. Each will have 52

Southern Europe
Italy. Italian naval vessels apprehended 21,000 migrants in the Adriatic Sea in the first eight months of 1999, compared to 20,000 in all of

Czech Republic: Roma
A 65-meter long wall or "concrete fence" was completed around an area that housed Roma in Usti, Czech Republic, just before the Chamber of Deputies

UK, Ireland
The British government's proposed Immigration and Asylum Bill would, among other things, permit asylum seekers to be dispersed around the country,

France: Foreign Legion
French Justice Minister Elizabeth Guigou rejected a request from the French Foreign Legion that would have allowed foreign-born soldiers wounded in


Australia/New Zealand
Australia's Immigration Department noted in its annual report that 926 foreigners, including 500 Chinese, arrived unlawfully by boat in the year

South Africa
Emigration from South Africa surpassed immigration in 1998 for the third year in a row. In 1998, 6,433 people emigrated, most to Europe,

Middle East
Israel. On October 26, 1999 Israel opened a 34-mile "safe passage" through Israel between the Palestinian areas of Gaza Strip and the West

International Organizations
ILO. President Clinton became the first US President to address the 174-member nation ILO in Geneva in June 1999. Clinton urged approval of an