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Rural Migration Blog

Recruiters or Merchants of Labor

June 18, 2018

Workers employed temporarily away from "home" often rely on private and for-profit recruiters to help them find jobs. Regulating these merchants of labor is problematic, in part because the ILO and other UN agencies believe that governments should provide no-cost job matching services for workers seeking jobs and employers seeking workers. ILO conventions call on employers seeking foreign workers to pay all recruitment costs.

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ICE Increases Employer Investigations and I-9 Audits

June 18, 2018

DHS’s Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency has increased investigations of employers suspected of hiring unauthorized workers. ICE’s Homeland Security Investigations division opened over 3,500 workplace investigations in the first seven months of FY18, and plans to open 5,500 investigations before FY18 ends September 30, 2018.

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Spanish Agriculture

June 18, 2018

Spain has the fourth largest agricultural sector in the EU, producing farm goods worth E47 billion in 2016 or 12 percent of the EU’s E405 billion in farm sales.

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World Wine Production and Consumption in 2017

June 18, 2018

The Paris-based OIV reported that global wine production was 250 million hectoliters in 2017, down almost 10 percent from 2016 due to poor weather in the EU, which produced 141 million hectoliters or 56 percent of the world’s wine ( A hectoliter is 100 liters, 26.4 gallons, or 133 bottles, so world wine production was 6.6 billion gallons.

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Foreign-born: higher labor force participation and lower unemployment

June 18, 2018

Foreign-born residents have higher labor force participation rates and lower unemployment rates than US-born workers.

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California Wine in 2017

May 16, 2018

California's 600,000 acres of wine grapes produced 4.2 million tons in 2017, an average yield of 7.2 tons an acre. Most California wine grapes are red varieties: 2.2 million tons or 52 percent were red compared with 1.8 million tons or 48 percent that were white varieties. Napa or District 4 crushed 142,000 tons of grapes or 3.4 percent of the total, while Fresno (District 13) crushed 1.3 million tons or 31 percent of the total.

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California Agriculture in 2016

May 16, 2018

California has led the nation in farm sales since 1948, when Los Angeles County had more farm sales than any other U.S. county. The major reason that California's farm sales of $46 billion in 2016 were almost $20 billion higher than Number 2 Iowa at $27 billion is the dominance of high-value fruit, nut, and vegetable crops. Three-fourths of California's farm sales are fruits and nuts, vegetables and melons, and horticultural specialties such as floriculture, nurseries, and mushrooms, so-called FVH crops.

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Food Spending by Income Quintile in the US: 2016

May 16, 2018

The US Bureau of Labor Statistic's Consumer Expenditure Survey ( reported 129.5 million US "consumer units" or households in 2016 with an average of 2.5 persons, 1.3 earners, and 1.9 motor vehicles. Some 62 percent were homeowners, and the average age of the reference person in the household was 51.

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GCM: From Guest Workers to Immigrants

May 16, 2018

Circular or temporary foreign worker programs (TFWPs), sometimes known as guest worker programs, aim to add workers temporarily to the labor force without adding settlers to the population. The terminology, temporary foreign worker or guest worker, emphasizes the rotation principle at the heart of TFWPs: migrants are expected to work in another country from several months to several years before returning to their countries of origin. If employer demand for migrants persists, there may be replacement migrants, but the ratio of employed to total migrants should be near 100 percent.

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Rising Fruit and Vegetables Imports from Mexico

May 16, 2018

Americans are consuming more fruit and vegetables imported from abroad. About half of US fresh fruit (53 percent in 2017) and almost a third of US fresh vegetables (31 percent in 2017) are imported.

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