July 29, 2022
Legal and Unauthorized Migration
The US has more immigrants than any other country, 47 million in 2022, making immigrants almost 15 percent of US residents. Unlike other countries with higher shares of immigrants such as Australia and Canada, almost a quarter of the immigrants in the US are unauthorized.
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California NAWS 2019-20
DOL’s National Agricultural Workers Survey interviewed 3,582 California non-H-2A crop workers over four years, 2015-19, almost 900 a year. California crop workers are aging, settling in one place with one farm employer, and are half unauthorized. Their personal incomes averaged $2,000 a month from farm earnings of about $600 a week for 35 to 40 weeks a year. Most California crop workers want to continue to do farm work as long as they can.
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World Wealth and HNWI Migration
World wealth was estimated to be $1,500 trillion in 2020, including a third in financial assets such as stocks and bonds held by financial corporations, a third held by households, governments, and nonfinancial businesses, and a third in nonfinancial assets such as machinery, real estate, and intellectual property.
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Canada is the great immigration exception among industrial countries. The government aims to increase the population of 38 million by one percent each year with immigrants, has a generous social welfare system, and enjoys widespread public support for its immigration and integration policies. Canadian exceptionalism is due in part to a flexible point system that gives priority to young and well-educated foreigners who know English or French and who studied or worked in Canada.
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Cruising and Migrant Workers
The cruise industry depends on the migration of workers and guests. Some 225,000 crew from many nations provided services to 30 million cruise passengers in 2019 on 270 ships. Cruise ships accommodate 100 to 6,000 passengers each, and most have one crew member for every two to three passengers.
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July 8, 2022
NAWS 2019-20: Older and Settled Farm Workers
DOL’s National Agricultural Workers Survey interviewed 2,172 non-H-2A crop workers in 2019-20 and found that 44 percent were unauthorized, up from 36 percent in 2017-18 but down from over 50 percent in 1998-2000. Over the past three decades, the share of foreign-born crop workers rose from 60 to 70 percent, the share of settled or non-migrant workers rose from 60 to 85 percent, and the share of unauthorized workers tripled from 15 to 45 percent.
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Codes of Conduct and Labor Law Compliance
Can private codes of conduct substitute for government to ensure compliance with labor laws in supply chains that involve low-wage workers? MIT’s Richard Locke persuaded Nike to allow analysis of the audits conducted in Nike supplier factories, and concluded that private audits and certifications did not ensure continuous supplier compliance with labor laws.
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Summit of the Americas
The 1st Summit of the Americas in 1994 in Miami called for a Free Trade Area of the Americas “from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego” to promote closer integration and spur growth among 34 Western Hemisphere countries (Cuba was excluded).
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Labor in Thai Agriculture
Almost 13 million people or 30 percent of Thailand’s 42 million strong labor force are employed in agriculture. Most of those employed in Thai agriculture are self-employed Thai farmers and their unpaid family members, but an increasing share are migrant workers from neighboring Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar.
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Migrant Recruitment Costs
The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development established 17 goals and created indicators to measure progress to achieve these goals by 2030. Sustainable Development Goal 10 is to reduce inequality within and between countries, and Target 10.7 is to: "facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies.”
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