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Rural Migration Blog

The Future of Work

July 18, 2019

The world of work is changing rapidly, as machines replace humans in ever more jobs, the traditional employer-employee relationship morphs into workers become independent contractors or having only short-term contracts and part-time jobs, and economic inequality widens socio-economic divisions in many societies.

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The Changing Nature of Work: Formal and Informal Jobs

July 18, 2019

Most of the world’s 3.6 billion workers are in developing countries, where two thirds of workers have informal jobs, defined as jobs that do not offer workers minimum wage protections and work-related benefits such as social security and health insurance.

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The Changing Nature of Work: Social Protection

July 18, 2019

The World Bank’s 2019 World Development Report, The Changing Nature of Work, emphasized the more dynamic labor markets associated with labor-saving automation and globalization. The report urged governments to invest more in health and education so that workers can adapt to faster labor market churn, as when workers are displaced from one job and must find another.

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Net migration averaged 3 million a year between 2010 and 2020

July 18, 2019

UN population projections included international migration data. Three of the world’s eight regions were net immigration areas, and five were net outmigration areas.

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Global Population: 7.7 billion to 9.7 billion by 2050

July 18, 2019

The UN released new population projections that project the world’s population rising from 7.7 billion in 2019 to 9.7 billion in 2050 and peaking at 11 billion in 2100. The world added a billion people between 2007 and 2019.

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ILO: 164 million migrant workers in 2017

June 17, 2019

The UN reported 258 million international migrants in 2017, defined as persons outside their country of birth a year or more, up from 173 million in 2010 or up an average 12 million a year. Two-thirds of international migrants are in richer industrial countries, where migrants are an average 12 percent of residents.

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Over 28 million foreign-born US workers in 2018

June 17, 2019

A sixth of US workers, 28 million of the 162-million strong US labor force in 2018, were born outside the US. About half of foreign-born workers were Hispanic and a quarter were Asians. Hispanics were 11 percent of US-born workers and Asians were two percent.

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Census of Agriculture 2017: California Vegetables

June 17, 2019

The value of US vegetables, potatoes, and melons was $20 billion in 2017; California’s vegetable, potato, and melon sales were $8.4 billion or 43 percent of the US total. The COA reports data in several ways, including by NAICS code in Table 75; vegetables are NAICS 1112.

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COA 2017: Direct-Hire Farm Workers

June 17, 2019

The Census of Agriculture collected data on hired farm labor for 2017. Section 29 of the questionnaire asked farm operators to report how many directly hired workers worked on their operation for more and less than 150 days. Farmers also reported the total number of migrant workers, defined as foreign and domestic and direct hire and contract workers who could not return to their usual home because of work on the responding farm.

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COA 2017: Farm Labor Expenses

June 17, 2019

The Census of Agriculture collected data from farm employers on their hired farm labor in 2017. Section 30 of the questionnaire included Q10 that asked about expenditures for (1) directly hired labor, including employer payroll taxes and the cost of any employer-provided benefits, and (2) contract labor, wages as well as contractor payroll taxes, work-related benefits, and other contractor expenses and profits.

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