Fruit and Vegetable Imports
The US is expected to import $43 billion worth of fresh and processed fruits and vegetables in FY22, up from $39 billion in FY21. Some $16 billion of fresh fruit was imported in FY21, accounting for 40 percent of fruit and vegetable imports by value, followed by $10 billion or 25 percent fresh vegetables and $6 billion each for processed fruits and vegetables.
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The H-2A Program in 2020
The H-2A program allows US employers who anticipate labor shortages to be certified by the US Department of Labor (DOL) to employ guest workers (1) if they try and fail to recruit US workers and (2) if the employment of H-2A workers does not adversely affect US workers. The recruitment test involves farmers posting their jobs and failing to attract US workers, and the adverse effect test requires employers to pay an Adverse Effect Wage Rate that is typically higher than federal, state, and local minimum wages.
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Guest Workers and Trafficking
The ILO estimated that 25 million people were in forced labor exploitation and forced marriage in 2016; 16 million were in forced labor, five million were in forced marriage or sex work, and four million were in state-imposed forced labor, as with prison labor.
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How well do immigrants and their children integrate into the US economy and society? During the third wave of immigration before WWI, when a million immigrants a year arrived in the US from southern and eastern Europe, there were fears that Italians, Jews, Poles and others would not become Americans. The arrival of rural Mexicans and Central Americans raises similar fears today.
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Global Population to 2050
The world’s population is expected to reach eight billion on November 15, 2022. The UN projected that there will be 8.5 billion people in 2030 and 9.7 billion in 2050, reflecting annual population increases of almost 80 million from 135 million births and 55 million deaths a year.
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