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January 2017, Volume 23, Number 1

Rural America

California: Salinas, Cannabis
The New York Times profiled Salinas on November 23, 2016, emphasizing that many of the farm workers in the US Salad Bowl have poor nutrition and are

Meat and Migrants
The Wall Street Journal on November 2, 2016 profiled smaller cities in the Midwest that have been changed by immigration since 2000. Donald Trump's

Jobs, Health
The unemployment rate averaged five percent in 2016, the US economy added 2.2 million jobs or an average 180,000 a month, and average hourly earnings

Farm Workers

California: Laws, Aging Workers
California enacted a law in 2016 (SB 3) raising the minimum wage from $10 to $15 an hour by 2022 and requiring farmers to pay 8/40 overtime (AB

Florida, Southeast
Consolidated Citrus was found in December 2016 to be a joint employer of H-2A workers with FLC Ruiz Harvesting under the Fair Labor Standards Act,

Midwest, Northeast, Northwest
The Environmental Protection Agency denied a request from farm organizations to delay implementation of the Worker Protection Standard from January

The UFW supported a strike at Cedar Point Nursery on October 29, 2015 to protest unfair labor practices, prompting a charge from Cedar Point that the

Labor Compliance and Fair Trade
Labor compliance programs use indicators and audits to ensure that producers in a supply chain abide by federal, state and local labor laws.

Farm Workers and FLCs
Agriculture has two major sectors, crops and livestock. Crops require the most hired workers, many of whom work seasonally, while livestock employs


Trump Wins: Next Steps
Donald Trump was elected the 45th US president, defeating Hillary Clinton by 304 to 227 electoral votes. Some 139 million votes were cast; Clinton

DHS: Unauthorized, DACA
Data released in Fall 2016 suggest the number of foreign-born US residents, including the unauthorized, rose to 43.3 million in 2015. Nine

H-2A, AEWR; H-2B
DOL certified 165,700 jobs to be filled with H-2A workers in FY16, that is, 95 percent of the 8,700 employer requests to fill almost 173,000 jobs

Canada, Mexico, Central America
Canada admitted 260,000 immigrants in 2014, equivalent to 0.7 percent of its population, and plans to accept 300,000 in 2016, including refugees.

Europe, Africa
Some 259,500 foreigners applied for asylum in the EU in 2010; 335,290 in 2012; 626,960 in 2014; and 1,321,600 in 2015. Many migrants arrive in

Global Migration
The World Bank reported that three-fourths of the 28 million highly skilled migrants in the OECD countries in 2010 were in the US, UK, Canada, and


California Agriculture
California's farm sales fell from $54 billion in 2014 to $47 billion in 2015, largely because of the declining price of milk, whose value fell from

US Dairy, Trade, GMOs
In 1900, 40 percent of Americans were employed in agriculture, compared with less than two percent today. As agriculture was mechanized a century

Wine, Food
Sonoma county has 60,000 acres of vineyards and 430 wineries, giving it more acres of vineyard than Napa (40,000), but fewer wineries (475).

Climate Change
The Paris Agreement reached in December 2015 between 195 countries to combat climate change went into effect November 11, 2016, after 94 countries


Borjas: We├┐Wanted Workers
The title of George Borjas's easy-to-read, 10-chapter, 200-page book, "We├┐Wanted Workers. Unraveling the Immigration Narrative," echoes Max Frisch's

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